Tag Archives: Writing

Word Clouds, Can They Help?


Word Clouds have been around for years. I have seen these visualizations used in various ways and enjoyed them but never applied the idea seriously to classroom use until this week.

I am working with my students to reduce the amount of passive verbs they use. Despite my modeling, sharing exemplars, and practice, “is” and “was” are their “go to” verbs. So when I gave feedback for the latest assignment I wondered if a picture really is worth a thousand words. I created word clouds for each student’s work using ABCYA Word Clouds for Kids. I chose this tool because it allows you to include common words.

Later as I was preparing the quickwrite for tomorrow I reflected on the question: Someone chose to call the book “Night.” Why do you think this name was selected? Please think first, go back to the book and look for text evidence, and then explain. Look beyond the obvious.

How can I get students to go beyond the obvious? Could word clouds of the text of the book help students?  I was lucky to find a .pdf file of the book and then chose Tagxedo to create the word cloud as it was able to handle the large amount of text.

The feedback has not been seen nor the quickwrite written but I am curious as to whether the addition of these visualization aids will demonstrate my expectations.

A final note: Looking at a word cloud of this post, I noticed some revision of word choice needed on my part.

Paraphrasing the Writing Assessment Rubric



If you have to create work for assessment, it helps to understand how it will be assessed. The TN Writing Assessment uses a rubric designed to complement the CCSS outcomes.

To prepare for this important test of student writing, I thought an examination of the rubric would help. The language of this document is “teacher speak,” often difficult for young learners to grasp its meaning. We performed a close reading of the rubric.

Because this is an advanced ELA class, we specifically focused on the Level Four expectation, the goal for each student. That did not mean the rest of the rubric was ignored but the goal of the lesson was to comprehend the expectations of the highest level of the rubric.

Step One: Read each category of the performance level four section and highlight the words you do not understand OR you believe the average student would not understand.

Step Two: Decide what the words means used in context and then look for a synonym of the word that is student friendly. Replace each of the words with the synonyms.

Step Three: Read each of the performance levels of the categories: Development, Focus/Organization, Language, and Conventions. Underline the words/phrases that changed as the level performances grew. Identify the key ideas of the each performance category.

Step Four: Paraphrase the Level Four expectations. Students worked in small groups with a place mat strategy to come up with the paraphrasing.

Step Five: I then put all of their ideas together and recreated a paraphrased Level Four Rubric. Students copied their ideas onto a new rubric grid.

Based on an idea from Crazy Lady Teacher,  I have implemented a weekly self-assessment based on the clear targets for the week. The following is a very thorough example of one’s student’s ideas.

SW 1








Preparing for the State Writing Assessment

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My ELA students will be taking the TCAP Writing Assessment the first week of February. In the past the prompts were rather silly and except for having students practice with past prompts, one hoped for the best.

Last year Tennessee provided its first CCSS based prompt. Students compared two pieces of nonfiction text. My preparation was minimal as that was the kind of writing they had done most of the year. They did quite well for a first attempt at this kind of writing assessment.

This year the assessment will be more rigorous. Students will have to write two essays. The first will be an analytical summary of a text and then some type of expository or argument prompt that analyzes the first text with a second text. Preparing students for a two-hour assessment is something to ponder.

Although, my students have been composing text-dependent writings all year I believe they needs some instruction on how to be successful on this assessment. Based on some suggestions from a fellow teacher who also happens to be my daughter, I am going to begin with these activities.

a. I have divided the rubric for the assessment into its sixteen parts. Students will be given one part and asked to find the three other sections that match their category and share out their observations.

b. Students will conduct a close reading of the language of the rubric, annotate unfamiliar words, locate the definitions of those words, and then paraphrase so that they understand better what is expected of them.

c. Students will conduct a close reading of a sample prompt and directions for writing an analytical summary, annotating for key ideas. I will ask several text-dependent questions so assess understanding.

What is the difference between a summary and an analytical summary?

What are central ideas?

What practices will prevent an adequate score?

What is the best way to cite the text?

d. Students will assess an exemplar of an analytical summary using the TCAP Writing rubric.

e. Students will write an analytical summary on how to write an analytical summary.


Of course these are just plans. I look forward to how it plays out.






Transitioning to Common Core

Image courtesy of http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy

I began the school year planning instruction using the Common Core State Standards instead of Tennessee’s. My thinking was that the ability to read and write critically would prepare a student for any type of assessment but more realistically give them strategies for the type of reading needed for authentic literacy situations.

Despite my meager knowledge of the subject at this point, I was amazed at the excitement I felt. Class conversations brought observations that eluded me. I didn’t have to spend an inordinate amount of time hunting for ways to make the learning motivating and meaningful.

But my time was spent on something tedious and that was helping the students to “unlearn” so many bad habits that well meaning instructors had instilled into my learners: a five paragraph response to any prompt, using such mundane phrases as “in my opinion,” and “in conclusion,” introducing the introduction, explaining the assignment rather than responding to it, and summarizing instead of forming a meaningful conclusion.

We rewrote (and when I say we, I mean all of us!) and returned to the same texts, offering new ideas, and sharing revisions. During a recent assignment, a student attached this comment, “Mrs. Shoulders, I now don’t use so much “I believe….” I always state my claim, and I don’t start off with I believe; thanks for teaching me that.”

The small steps are paying off; they (no I mean we) are starting to get it.