Tag Archives: Argument

Getting Help From the Experts, NCTE 13: Argument Unit Part 5

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Personal Photo
The argument unit is in rough draft, very rough. I need more than the web resources I have found.
Knowing I was attending NCTE 13 in Boston this year, I put the unit away until the conference was over. This proved to be a wise decision.

NCTE is one of the best places to learn from the best on literacy topics and issues. I arranged my schedule so that I could attend several sessions on how to teach argument and it paid off!
The following are my notes. I came away with a new perspective and have rearranged some lessons, added new ones, and revised rest of the unit. I know more and feel that I am making some headway on a challenging topic.

Making Argument Matter: Teaching Argumentative Writing as Academic and Artistic Engagement by Jennifer VanDerHeide, Chris Moore, Andrea Vescelius, and Kim Leddy

  • Transformative Thinking (Moor and Vescelius):
    • Need to front load student thinking with belief systems: logic, Toumlin logic, tensions, audience, and counter-argument
    • Students believe what everyone else believes, It’s logical because its logical, So… this is the formula, right? Just give me the answer, you agree, right? Me, me, me!
    • Need reasoning NOT just reasons.
    • Beliefs about Argument
      • Conservation that enlists mature reasoning
      • Responsive because it is based in belief systems
      • Culturally relevant because it pushes use to think deeper
      • Risky because there are things at stake
      • A process that allows rooms for growth and development
      • Transformative because it has the power to change how we think about ourselves, each other, and the world
      • Not a formula – messy
      • Students think about argument in a vacuum, which leads to inability to apply argumentative strategies in a complex, real world writing
      • Create authentic learning situations that set up real world thinking, create ways to engage student to interact within a society of diverse perspectives
      • Create authentic argumentative situation that open doors to the world outside the classroom.
      • Outthink the other person – say to students to “win” their argument
      • Scaffolding:
        • Rosie/Elizabeth “The View” clip to show what argument isn’t
        • Warranting
          • Slip or Trip, Lunchroom Murder (Hillocks, Chapter 1)
          • Why Shouldn’t I put this Puppy in the Microwave?
          • Mr. Ms. ____ is the best teacher because…
          • Jefferson, “The Declaration of Independent”
  • Evidence and Backing
    • Judgments of Murder (Hillocks Chapter 6)
  • Rhetoric and Counterargument
    • Commercials and Counterargument
    • Staples, Black Men in Space
    • Life Boat Activity- begin discussing assignment in whole group, go to small group to reach consensus (coming to consensus is more important than winning), and then put groups together, complete with debriefing (unpack your thinking) and reflection in next less.
      • Because it’s made up it is safe and play.
      • Your own view is shaped by your personal experiences,
      • Complete with writing assignment.
      • Activity leads to students thinking beyond themselves to a worldly view.
      • The Results
        • By challenging what students believe to be true, we access their internal learning instead of surface learning
        • Instead of using Toumlin as a structure that contains ideas, students deploy Toumlin as a thinking process that accesses their abilities to craft logical arguments
        • Instead of rigidly written essays that are one sided, student explore multiple points of view.
        • Empower all learning by creating space for them to explore their beliefs to discus commonality with others and to use their global voice.
        • Transformative Viewing (Leddy-leddy@edcouncil.org) Mosaic
          • Students spend at least three hours in front of a screen each day – images are important
          • Understand how media affects awareness
          • Use fine art to look deeper into things “stop and smell the art.” Ex. Guernica
          • Visual Proficiency
            • Engagement with images demand critical thinking
            • Cultural relevant – examines our perspectives and the world that shapes them
            • Social relevant – encourages empathy
  • Initial responses to Art can produce many varied ideas.
  • Use Toumlin as a guide to examine art.
  • Creativity is a way of thinking.
  • How to “argue” a painting
    • What do you see? (Evidence) – students write down all of the things that are seen, facts, do for 5 minutes
    • What does it mean? (Claim) – discussion in small groups
    • Why do you say that? (Warrant)
    • Modern Art is good for argument of policy (Worth Every Penny by Barbara Krueger)
    • Argumentative Writing Instruction
      • Teaching students how to think; learning on the boarder of students’ comfort zones
      • Working with “data sets”
      • Learning about the process of argumentation before the terms
      • Teaching about warranting: a variety of belief systems
      • Teaching students to be confident in their own voices
      • Teaching Argument (Smith and Wilhelm) chapter on literature

Beyond Argument’s Sake: Teaching Students How to Deconstruct, Construct, and Deliver Academic Arguments by Courtnei Freeman, Andrea Gollnick, Lori Kixmiller, and Elizabeth Love, http://prezi.com/yg6dsjsvocvk/beyond-arguments-sake-teaching-students-how-to-deconstruct/

  • Shift from persuasion and argument:
    • Create new focus on Vocabulary (Claim, evidence, warrant, and counterargument
    • Speaking and listening activities become equal players in the language arts curriculum
    • Inquiry leads to argument
    • Inverted argument construct: Evidence might drive claim (Hillock)
    • Evidence: Information you gather related to a topic
    • Warrants are the heart of the argument
      • Identifies the “So What?”
      • Explains why/how the evidence leads to the claim.
      • Position on the topic, debatable and defensible
      • Analyzing Claim, Evidence, and Counterargument
        • Important to critically read different forms of media
        • Examine both sides of the issue… Ask students to respond through informal writing: video clips, close reading of two articles – looking for evidence
        • Evaluate the evidence presented on both sides – graphic organizer
        • Debate: Philosophical Chairs
        • Shaping a Position: Coaching students to write an argument using graphic organizers and common structures
          • Examine data (the evidence)
          • Narrow down the claim – use the evidence to create a focused claim – graphic organizer
          • Prewriting: Organize the argument – graphic organizer
          • Scaffolding the paragraph – graphic organizer
          • Speaking and Listening
            • Would Your Rather? Support argument first and then suggest counterargument
            • The Argument Game
            • Triple Speak
            • Impromptu Speeches
            • Tag Team Debate

Using Technology and Project-Based Learning to Improve Classroom Talk and Argumentative Writing by Vanessa Astore, Nasia Smith, and Heather Staats, http://recipes4engagement.weebly.com/

  • Reasons for Revising Argument Unit
    • Lack of engagement with text
    • Reluctant to participate in discussion
    • Lack of evidence for argument
    • Failure to transfer knowledge from text to assignment
    • Selecting emotions over evidence
    • Argument in CCSS
      • Shift in writing from persuasive to argument
      • Previously allowed to use person opinion
      • Drawing on evidence
      • How can we harness conversation to improve argument writing?
      • Feature of informational text
        • Complex
        • Difficult vocab
        • Complicated text structures
        • Unfamiliar content
        • Problems for students
          • Meaning
          • Inferences
          • Central Ideas
          • Relevant evidence
          • Explaining evidence
          • Improbable arguments
          • Illogical rebuttals
          • Leading to limited textual evidence and plagiarized evidence
          • Step one of the Argument Writing Process: Socratic Seminar
            • Purpose allow student to discuss before writing to get ideas from each other
              • Pre-work
              • Inner Outer Circle
              • Observing each other to get feedback
              • Final written response
              • Reflection
  • Benefits
    • Holds students accountable
    • Safe place to voice ideas
    • Brainstorming
    • Learning from each other
    • Using evidence
    • Challenges reasoning
  • May be need for videotaping and reflection of whether the objectives are being met.
  • Use a prewriting Quickwrite to get started and finish with a post writing prompt.
  • Step Two Argument Writing Process: Project-Based Learning, First Attempt
    • Design Decisions:
      • Roles
        • Annotator – while everyone reads together, someone annotate
        • Drafter – composed paragraphs for analysis
        • Blogger – edited the paragraphs and created site.
        • Tech Tools: Blogging platform
  • Recipe for Engagement
    • Collaborative
    • Choice
    • Appropriate Rigor
    • Shared Ownership
  • Goals: Objective Students will be able to analyze complex text for
    • Claims
    • Evidence
    • Persuasive Techniques
    • Reliability and Validity
    • Created blogs that discuss analysis of the text and comment on each other’s blogs.
  • http://hansondavayrahnell.weebly.com/
  • Step Two Argument Writing Process: Project-Based Learning, Second Attempt
    • Design Decisions:
      • Roles – none, worked together
      • Tech Tools: Google Presentation
  • Goals – Students will be able to analyze complex text for reliability and validity and create a multimedia presentation that discusses analyses and reliability of texts. (Limited the goals for project)
  • Tasks:
    • Choose between two text-related historical topics
    • Devise own subtopics/research question
    • Conduct research and collect information
    • Evaluate sources for reliability
    • Design own slides
    • Debrief on all slides – explained why they chose the evidence – explanation of reliability.
    • Present entire presentation to entire group via “jigsaw” (Each person from each group made of a group from an individual from the other groups)
    • Students provide reflections after presentation via Google Forms (credibility of presentation)
  • Classroom Talk as Digital Discussions (Collaborize Classroom)
    • Assigning groups based on ability
    • Students propose topics of discussion
    • Extend classroom discussion
    • Peer Review Assignment
    • Start or extend a Socratic seminar
    • Allow multiple means of responding: vote, true/false, open forum,
    • How Does All of This Translate to Argument Writing?
      • SS helped students get engaged
      • Notes/responses helped generate ideas to connect to text
      • Aided with objective tone and evidence
      • Helped with different perspectives and interpretations of texts
      • Helped clear up misconceptions
      • Brought more meaning to the text
      • Revised Focus
        • Focus on reasoning
        • Emphasis on meaning
        • Small tasks throughout the year
        • Time for faded scaffolding

Resources for Unit Planning: Argument Unit Part 4



Standards ✓

Summative Assessment ✓

Now it’s time to gather resources. Since I am somewhat of a hoarder when it comes to accumulating vast amounts of potentially useful materials, this can be a daunting task.

I have included a sampling of useful sites for me.


Web Resources:

Common Core Specific Web Resources:

Many of these are collaborative resources offered by teachers who are experiencing the transfer to Common Core. And while I use these resources regularly nothing replaces live collaboration. I am looking forward to NCTE 13 in Boston this week. Many of the leading experts in the field of teaching literacy will be there and I will be taking notes!

Beginning with the End in Mind, Assessment: Argument Unit Part 3



Constructed Response Assessment Unit Three

Begin with the end in sight. As applied to unit planning, this means knowing what you want students to know through summative assessment. I try to balance the testing to include state standardized testing items as well as a performance assessment. The challenge of this unit is that I am still learning the content material. My elementary education background precluded the idea of logical argument. I am still learning.

Unit planning always stays in a rough draft. The assessment portion of this unit is definitely “rough.”

I have linked to the “standardized” portion of the summative assessment. The performance assessment will be a response to this prompt: Should the United States have done more to help the victims of the Jewish Holocaust during the war? After reading Night and “We Knew in a General Way,” write an argument that addresses the question and support your position with evidence from the text(s). Be sure to acknowledge competing views. Give examples from past or current events or issues to illustrate and clarify your position.

The format of this prompt was adapted from the Literacy Design Collaborative. http://www.literacydesigncollaborative.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/LDCBook_web.pdf


Standards, Standards, Standards: Argument Unit Part 2



Unit planning begins with the standards. The state has adopted the Common Core State Standards, so that is where I begin. The following standards pertain to the idea of reading, analyzing, and writing arguments.

Key Ideas and Details

RI.8.1 Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

RI.8.8 Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.

Comprehension and Collaboration

S/L.8.3 Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and relevance and sufficiency of the evidence and identifying when irrelevant evidence is introduced.

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas

S/L.8.4. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning, alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed, and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks.

Text Types and Purposes

W.8.1 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

a. Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.

b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.

c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

d. Establish and maintain a formal style.

e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

Phrasing copy and pasted from http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy.

Author Jim Burke has broken the standards down to help understand what is needed to produce the outcome. With this help, I created a list of objectives.

1. Define and identify the parts of an argument: claim, evidence, warrant, counterclaim, and rebuttal.

2. Define and identify types of claims: fact, values, and policy.

3. Distinguish between claims with support and those without support.

4. Define and identify some common fallacies use in argument.

5. Distinguish between arguments that are sound and those that have fallacies.

6. Define relevant/sufficient evidence and evaluate arguments based on those ideas.

7. Evaluate point of view with respect to spoken argument: subject, occasion, audience, purpose, and speaker.

8. Identify various propaganda techniques and how they may apply to a speaker’s message.

9. Evaluate a speaker’s argument with regards to claim and supporting evidence.

10. Distinguish between effective and ineffective spoken arguments and explain the differences.

Burke, Jim. The Common Core Companion, the Standards Decoded, Grades 6-8: What They Say, What They Mean, How to Teach Them. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Literacy, 2013. Print.

I then tweaked the objectives to create student clear targets in the form of “I Can” statements.

1. I can define and identify the parts of an argument.

2. I can define and identify types of claims.

3. I can distinguish between claims with support and those without support.

4. I can define and identify some common fallacies.

5. I can distinguish between arguments that are sound and those that have fallacies.

6. I can define relevant and sufficient evidence and evaluate arguments based on those ideas.

7. I can evaluate point of view with respect to spoken argument.

8. I can identify common propaganda techniques and how they apply to a speaker’s message.

9. I can evaluate a speaker’s argument with regards to claim and supporting evidence.

10. I can distinguish between effective and ineffective spoken arguments and explain the differences.

11. I can write an argument in a formal style that is logical and provides supporting details with credible references.

12. I can use words, phrases, and clauses to make my argument coherent and explain the relationships between and among claims, counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.


Unit vs. Lesson Plans: Argument Unit Part 1



I enjoy planning for instruction! I liken it to a puzzle in which I take the pieces (resources) and piece them together to fit my needs.

I am concerned by the number of teachers who post complaints on Facebook, usually on Sunday night, complaining about the hours they have spent in lesson planning.

While I realize profusely that this is none of my business, I cannot help wonder about the practice of writing weekly lesson plans. Only viewing your course through short snippets seems to prevent understanding terminal goals or outcomes. How can one see the big picture by focusing one week at a time? If your lesson plans are completed on Sunday night how then does one prepare materials ahead of time?

These concerns prevent my indulging in such practices. I plot out the year by focusing on big ideas through a theme. That theme is broken into smaller more definite subtopics. Through the subtopic, I then attempt to match the Common Core State Standards focusing on those that help meet the essential question for the unit.

OK enough gobbledygook! Here are some specifics. The course is 8th Grade ELA. The overarching theme is “Finding New Solutions to Old Problems.” The subtopic is “The Holocaust.” The unit that I am planning for now is to be used in January for the third nine weeks of school. Instruction for the first semester focused on strategies to read and write informational text and literature. We are now ready for a more focused reading and writing in terms of “Argument.” During the course of this unit students will learn to read/analyze arguments as well as write a sound and valid argument. My challenge is as follows:

  • Identify the CCSS that meet the needs of reading, analyzing, and writing arguments.
  • Locate resources that demonstrate how to teach students to read, analyze, and write arguments.
  • Revise those resources to meet the needs of my students.
  • Adapt the resources so that they help students to understand the Holocaust and the anchor book, “Night.”

In future postings, I will share my thought process and progress for this unit.